Four Basic Operations in Maths

In Mathematics, the four fundamental operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. These operations are used to manipulate the numbers, which is studied in the branch of Mathematics called “Arithmetics”. It deals with the study of different types of numbers, along with the properties and four basic arithmetic operations. These four operations can be represented in terms of binary operations as binary addition, binary subtraction, and so on. Here, we are going to discuss the four important fundamental operations in Maths with examples.


The addition is a process of putting things together. It means that the numbers are added together. The symbol used to represent the addition is “+”. It has augend, addend, and sum. An augend is a number in which the other number is added. An addend is a number that is to be added with the augend. The result of the addition process is called sum or total. The standard form to represent the addition operation is:

Augend + Addend = Sum

Consider an example, 5 + 10 = 15


“5” is augend, “10” is added, “15” is sum or total, “+” is an operator.


The subtraction is a process of taking something away from the group. It is the inverse process of addition. The symbol used to represent subtraction is “-”. The different parts used in subtraction operation are minuend, subtrahend, and result. A minuend is the first number from which the other number is to be subtracted. The number which is to be subtracted is called subtrahend. The result of the subtraction process is the difference. The standard form of subtraction is given as:

Minuend – Subtrahend = Difference

Example: 15 – 5 = 10

Here, “15” is minuend, “5” is subtrahend”, “10” is a difference, “-” is a subtraction operator.


The multiplication is the process of repeated addition. The properties of multiplication and addition are similar, except identity property. It involves a pair of numbers to derive the third number. The symbol used to denote multiplication is “×”. It involves three different parts. They are multiplicand, multiplier, and product. A number that is to be multiplied with another number is called multiplicand. A number by which another number is multiplied is called the multiplier, and the product is the result. The standard form is given as:

Multiplicand × Multiplier = Product

Example: 10 × 5 = 50

Here, “10” is a multiplicand, “5” is a multiplier, “50” is a product, “×” is a multiplication operator.


The division is an inverse process of multiplication. The division process is used to split the things into equal parts. The symbol used to represent division is “÷”. A number that we are going to divide is called a dividend. A number that divides the dividend is called the divisor, and the quotient is the result of the division process. A number that is left over after the division is known as the remainder. The standard form to represent the division is:

Dividend ÷ Divisor = Quotient

Example: 30 ÷ 10 = 3

Here, “30” is a dividend, “10” is a divisor, “3” is a quotient, and “÷” is a division operator.

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